Difference between revisions of "Solar Geoengineering"

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''This page is about the intersection of solar geoengineering and machine learning in the context of climate change adaptation. For an overview of solar geoengineering as a whole, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_radiation_management Wikipedia page] on this topic.''
 
Solar geoengineering, much like the greenhouse gases causing climate change, shifts the balance between how much heat the Earth absorbs and how much it releases. The difference is that it is done deliberately, and in the opposite direction. The most common umbrella strategy is to make the Earth more reflective, keeping heat out, though there are also methods of helping heat escape (besides CO2 removal, which is discussed in [[Forestry and Other Land Use]]).
 
== Machine Learning Application Areas ==
There are a number of speculative applications of machine learning to solar geoengineering. (For more details on these problem areas, see the chapter on Solar Geoengineering in the paper "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning."<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Rolnick|first=David|last2=Donti|first2=Priya L.|last3=Kaack|first3=Lynn H.|last4=Kochanski|first4=Kelly|last5=Lacoste|first5=Alexandre|last6=Sankaran|first6=Kris|last7=Ross|first7=Andrew Slavin|last8=Milojevic-Dupont|first8=Nikola|last9=Jaques|first9=Natasha|last10=Waldman-Brown|first10=Anna|last11=Luccioni|first11=Alexandra|date=2019-11-05|title=Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning|url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1906.05433|journal=arXiv:1906.05433 [cs, stat]}}</ref>)
 
* '''Designing aerosols''': Many solar geoengineering proposals rely on injecting aerosol particles into the atmosphere to partially reflect sunlight. ML can (speculatively) accelerate the search for new aerosols that are chemically nonreactive but still reflective, cheap, and easy to keep aloft. (See also the page on [[Accelerated Science|accelerated science]].)
== Background Readings ==
* '''Modeling aerosols''': Many solar geoengineering proposals rely on injecting aerosol particles into the atmosphere to partially reflect sunlight, but their physics is not fully understood. ML can help speed up physical models and quantify the uncertainty of predictions. (See also the page on [[Climate Science|climate science]].)
* '''Engineering a planetary control system''': Controlling a geoengineering system comes with a multitude of challenges and a host of possible side effects, many of which could be catastrophic. Speculatively, ML can help fine-tune geoengineering interventions by suggesting control actions and emulating the complex dynamical systems involved.
* '''Modeling geoengineering impacts''': It remains unclear what consequences will result from geoengineering proposals such as injecting aerosols into the stratosphere. ML can help model the impact of aerosols on human health, the effect of diminished light on agriculture, and other potential consequences of solar geoengineering. (See also the discussion on integrated assessment models on the [[Public Policy and Decision Science|public policy and decision science]] page.)
 
== Background Readings ==
=== Articles and Reports ===
 
*'''Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering (2018)'''<ref>Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. “Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering.” Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Project on Climate Agreements, November 2018. Available at https://www.c2g2.net/wp-content/uploads/Harvard-Project-Solar-Geo-Governance-Briefs-181126.pdf</ref>: A comprehensive report is based on a workshop organized and hosted by the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. [https://www.c2g2.net/wp-content/uploads/Harvard-Project-Solar-Geo-Governance-Briefs-181126.pdf Available here].
*'''An Overview of the Earth System Science of geoengineeringGeoengineering (2016)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Irvine|first=Peter J.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|last3=Lawrence|first3=Mark G.|last4=Muri|first4=Helene|date=2016-11-01|title=An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering|url=http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/wcc.423|journal=Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change|language=en|volume=7|issue=6|pages=815–833|doi=10.1002/wcc.423|via=}}</ref>: An introductory article regarding approaches in geoengineering and the considerations to take into account. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/wcc.423 Available here.]
*'''Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering (2016)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Irvine|first=Peter J.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|last3=Lawrence|first3=Mark G.|last4=Gerten|first4=Dieter|last5=Caminade|first5=Cyril|last6=Gosling|first6=Simon N.|last7=Hendy|first7=Erica J.|last8=Kassie|first8=Belay T.|last9=Kissling|first9=W. Daniel|last10=Muri|first10=Helene|last11=Oschlies|first11=Andreas|date=2017-01-01|title=Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016ef000389|journal=Earth's Future|volume=5|issue=1|pages=93–106|doi=10.1002/2016ef000389|issn=2328-4277|via=}}</ref>: A paper exploring the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystem [https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2016EF000389 Available here.]
*'''The engineering of climate engineering (2019)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=MacMartin|first=Douglas G.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|date=2019-05-03|title=The Engineering of Climate Engineering|url=https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725|journal=Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems|volume=2|issue=1|pages=445–467|doi=10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725|issn=2573-5144}}</ref>: A review of the engineering design aspects of climate engineering, discussing both progress to date and remaining challenges that will need to be addressed. [https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725 Available here.]
=== Major conferences ===
 
*[https://www.ce-conference.org/ '''Climate Engineering Conference''']: anAn annual conference bringing together the research, policy, and civic communities to discuss the highly complex and interlinked ethical, social and technical issues related to climate engineering.  Website [https://www.ce-conference.org/ here].
*[https://www.agu.org/fall-meeting '''American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting''']: theThe annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, presenting thematic research on the latest topics in geophysical sciences. Website [https://www.agu.org/fall-meeting here].
 
=== Major journals ===
 
*[https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/21698996 '''Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres''']: aA journal publishing original research articles that advance and improve the understanding of atmospheric properties and processes, including the interaction of the atmosphere with other components of the Earth system, as well as their roles in climate variability and change. Website [https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/21698996 here].
*[https://www.atmospheric-chemistry-and-physics.net/ '''Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics''']: anAn international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and public discussion of high-quality studies investigating the Earth's atmosphere and the underlying chemical and physical processes. Website [https://www.atmospheric-chemistry-and-physics.net/ here].
*[https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/23284277 '''Earth's Future''']: aA transdisciplinary journal examining the state of the planet and its inhabitants, sustainable and resilient societies and the science of the Anthropocene. Website [https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/23284277 here].
 
== Libraries and Tools ==
== Data ==
 
* [http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/GeoMIP/ '''The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project]''': A resource describing solar geoengineering simulation data. Website [http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/GeoMIP/ here].
 
== References ==
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