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[[File:ElectricitySystems.png|thumb|A schematic of selected opportunities to reduce greenhouse emissions from electricity systems using machine learning. From "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning."<ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=|title=Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning|url=|journal=|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>]]
AI has been called the new electricity, given its potential to transform entire industries. Interestingly, electricity itself is one of the industries that AI is poised to transform. Many electricity systems are awash in data, and the industry has begun to envision next-generation systems (smart grids) driven by AI and ML.
ML can contribute on all fronts by informing the research, deployment, and operation of electricity system technologies. Such contributions include accelerating the development of clean energy technologies, improving forecasts of demand and clean energy, improving electricity system optimization and management, and enhancing system monitoring. These contributions require a variety of ML paradigms and techniques, as well as close collaborations with the electricity industry and other experts to integrate insights from operations research, electrical engineering, physics, chemistry, the social sciences, and other fields.
== Readings and online courses ==
=== Primers on electricity systems ===
*'''Chapter 7: "Energy Systems" in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (2014)'''<ref>Bruckner T., I.A. Bashmakov, Y. Mulugetta, H. Chum, A. de la Vega Navarro, J. Edmonds, A. Faaij, B. Fungtammasan, A. Garg, E. Hertwich, D. Honnery, D. Infield, M. Kainuma, S. Khennas, S. Kim, H.B. Nimir, K. Riahi, N. Strachan, R. Wiser, and X. Zhang, 2014: Energy Systems. In: ''Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change'' [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Available at https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/energy-systems/</ref>: An overview of "issues related to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from the energy supply sector."
* [https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/energy-systems/ IPCC chapter on energy systems]
*'''"Energy Primer: A Handbook for Energy Market Basics" by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (2020)'''<ref>Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. "Energy Primer: A Handbook of Energy Market Basics." ''Federal Energy Regulatory Commission: Washington, DC, USA'' (2020). Available at https://www.ferc.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/energy-primer-2020.pdf</ref>: A primer on wholesale electricity, natural gas, and oil/petroleum markets, as well as energy-related financial markets, in the United States.
* [https://www.ferc.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/energy-primer-2020.pdf Energy Primer by US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission]
*[https://www.iea.org/reports/digitalisation-and-energy Digitalisation and Energy Report by the International Energy Agency]: a primer on the impacts of digitalization on energy systems: supply, demand, and integration (''free log in required to download'').
=== Textbooks on electricity systems ===
*'''"Electric Power Systems: A Conceptual Introduction" (2006)'''<ref>Von Meier, Alexandra. "Electric power systems." ''A Conceptual Introduction'' (2006).</ref>: A textbook "intended to bridge the gap between formal engineering texts and more popularly accessible descriptions of electric power technology."
* Von Meier, A. [https://www.personal.psu.edu/sab51/vls/vonmeier.pdf Electric Power Systems: A Conceptual Introduction.] (2006)
*'''"Power Generation, Operation, and Control" (2013)'''<ref>Wood, A. J., Wollenberg, B. F., & Sheblé, G. B. (2013). ''Power generation, operation, and control''. John Wiley & Sons.</ref>: A canonical reference on the engineering and economics of electric power systems.
* Wood, A.J. et al., [https://www.wiley.com/en-ca/Power+Generation%2C+Operation%2C+and+Control%2C+3rd+Edition-p-9780471790556 Power Generation, Operation, and Control.] (2013)
*'''"Fundamentals of Power System Economics" (2018)'''<ref>Kirschen, D. S., & Strbac, G. (2018). ''Fundamentals of power system economics''. John Wiley & Sons.</ref>: An introduction to electricity markets.
* Kirschen,D D.S., and Strbac, G. [https://www.academia.edu/8171173/Fundamentals_of_power_system_economics Fundamentals of Power System Economics, Volume 1] (2004).
=== Online coursesOther ===
* [https://greeningthegrid.org/toolkits '''Greening the Grid toolkit''']: A collection of readings, trainings, and other resources on power grids, renewable energy, energy storage, and electric vehicles.
* [https://www.coursera.org/learn/electric-power-systems Coursera Electric Power Systems online course]
* '''[https://www.nature.com/collections/bccqhmkbyw/ "Nuclear fusion collection" in Nature Physics]''': A collection of articles on the state of nuclear fusion research.
== Online courses and course materials ==
=== Primers on specific sub-topics ===
* [https://www.coursera.org/learn/electric-power-systems '''"Electric Power Systems" on Coursera''']: A course covering the "standards and policies of the electric utility industry," including "basic vocabulary used in the business" and an introduction of "the electric power system, from generation of the electricity all the way to the wall plug."
==== Nuclear fusion ====
* '''[http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~zkolter/course/15-884/ "Computational Methods for the Smart Grid"]''': "[A]n introduction to recent advances in computational methods applied to sustainable energy and the smart grid... provid[ing] students with a broad background in state-of-the-art computational methods that repeatedly arise in these domains, such as machine learning, optimization, and control."
* [https://www.nature.com/collections/bccqhmkbyw/ Nuclear fusion collection in Nature Physics]
== Community ==
=== Major conferences ===
* '''[https://pes-gm.org/2020/ IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting]''': One of the [https://www.ieee-pes.org/meetings-and-conferences IEEE Power & Energy Society's] flagship annual conferences, held in North America.
* '''[https://pscc2020pscc-central.ptepfl.ch/ Power Systems Computation Conference]''': A biennial conference held in Europe, focused on computational power system methods.
* [https://attend.ieee.org/powertech-2019/ '''PowerTech''']: The [https://www.ieee-pes.org/meetings-and-conferences IEEE Power & Energy Society’s PowerTechSociety's] anchor conference in Europe, held biennially.
* Also see additional conferences by [https://www.ieee.org/conferences/index.html IEEE] and the [https://www.ieee-pes.org/meetings-and-conferences IEEE Power & Energy Society]
=== Major journals ===
* [https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=59 '''IEEE Transactions on Power Systems''']: Covers the "requirements, planning, analysis, reliability, operation, and economics of electric generating, transmission, and distribution systems for general industrial, commercial, public, and domestic consumption."
* [https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5165411 '''IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid''']: "[A] cross disciplinary and internationally archival journal aimed at disseminating results of research on smart grid that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences energy generation, transmission, distribution and delivery."
=== SocietiesMajor societies and organizations ===
*'''[https://www.ieee-pes.org/ IEEE Power & Energy Society]''': "[T]he world's largest forum for sharing the latest in technological developments in the electric power industry, for developing standards that guide the development and construction of equipment and systems, and for educating members of the industry and the general public."
* [https://www.ieee.org/ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)], particularly the [https://www.ieee-pes.org/meetings-and-conferences IEEE Power & Energy Society]
=== Past and upcoming events ===
== Libraries and tools ==
*[https://powertac.org/ '''PowerTAC''']: A power system simulation environment.
* [https://us.energypolicy.solutions/docs/ Energy Policy Simulator] from [https://energyinnovation.org/ Energy Innovation LLC]
*[https://us.energypolicy.solutions/docs/ '''Energy Policy Simulator''']: A tool to simulate the greenhouse gas emissions effects of various climate and energy policies.
* [https://github.com/invenia/OPFSampler.jl/ '''Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Sampler Package''']: A Julia package to generate power grid data samples via optimal power flow methods.
*[https://greeningthegrid.org/toolkits Greening the Grid toolkit]
*[https://powertac.org/ PowerTAC testing platform]
== Data ==
=== GeneralElectricity electricity marketsystem data ===
* '''[https://catalystgithub.coopcom/pudlcatalyst-cooperative/pudl Public Utility Data Liberation (PUDL) Project]''': A project integrating a variety of United States federal electricity data sources.
*'''United States ISO/RTO data:''' Electricity market data (e.g., prices, supply, and demand) are available online for a number of US independent system operatorsoperator/regional transmission organizationsorganization (ISOs/RTOs):regions, namely [http://www.caiso.com/TodaysOutlook/Pages/prices.aspx CAISO], [http://www.ercot.com/gridinfo ERCOT], [https://www.iso-ne.com/markets-operations ISO-NE], [https://www.misoenergy.org/markets-and-operations/ MISO], [https://www.nyiso.com/energy-market-operational-data NYISO], [https://dataminer2.pjm.com/list PJM], and [https://marketplace.spp.org/ SPP].
*[https://github.com/tmrowco/electricitymap-contrib#data-sources '''European electricity market data from electricityMap''']: Links to (and parsers for) European power system data.
=== SupplyRenewables forecasting contest data ===
* [https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=doi:10.7910/DVN/IHBANG '''SubseasonalRodeo''']: "A benchmark dataset for training and evaluating ''subseasonal forecasting systems''—systems predicting temperature or precipitation 2-6 weeks in advance—in the western contiguous United States."
* [http://www.drhongtao.com/gefcom Global Energy Forecasting Competition]
* [https://www.kaggle.com/c/ams-2014-solar-energy-prediction-contest '''American Meteorological Society 2013-2014 Solar Energy Prediction Contest''']: Contest data for producing daily forecasts of solar energy.
* [https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=doi:10.7910/DVN/IHBANG SubseasonalRodeo]
* [https://www.kaggle.com/c/ams-2014-solar-energy-prediction-contest American Meteorological Society 2013-2014 Solar Energy Prediction Contest]
*[https://www.google.com/get/sunroof/data-explorer/ Google Project Sunroof] (detailed estimates of solar potential based on sunlight and roof space) [TODO not sure if this belongs here]
=== Demand data ===
* [https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=doi:10.7910/DVN/1ZNLUY '''Rural Electricity Demand in India (REDI) Dataset''']: "The dataset contains detailed information on electricity demand in rural India. The dataset covers 10,000 households and 2,000 rural enterprises across 200 villages in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and Rajasthan."
*'''[https://www.pecanstreet.org/dataport/about/ Pecan Street]:''' Disaggregated energy and water data.
=== GHG emissions data ===
* [https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/satellite-methane?tab=overview Global'''Copernicus global methane data''']: Dataset on global methane emissions from 2002 onwards from the European Space Agency.
*'''[https://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/ USUnited States Environmental Protection Agency's Air Markets Program data]''': Datasets from the US EPA's emissions trading programs. For instance, the Continuous Emissions Monitoring dataSystem dataset ([https://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/also tool]available orvia the EPA's [ftp://newftp.epa.gov/DMDnLoad/emissions/ FTP site]) provides hourly emissions and generation for many fossil fuel generators in the United States.
*See also: '''Satellite imagery datasets'''
* [https://github.com/tmrowco/electricitymap-contrib#data-sources ElectricityMap] data sources
=== Accelerated science for materials ===
* [https://materialsproject.org/ The Materials Project]
* [http://www2.fiz-karlsruhe.de/icsd_home.html Inorganic Crystal Structure Database]
* [https://www.cas.org/products/scifinder SciFinder] (paid)
* [https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/ UCI Machine Learning Repository datasets, e.g. “Concrete Compressive Strength”]
=== Other ===
* '''Accelerated materials science datasets:''' Datasets that may be useful for research on solar fuels, next-generation battery conducting fluids, or other accelerated materials science applications in the electricity sector.
* Also see listings on satellite imagery [TODO]
* '''Satellite imagery datasets:''' Datasets that may be useful for applications such as power plant emissions detection, power grid mapping, solar panel mapping, etc.
* [https://www.google.com/get/sunroof/data-explorer/ '''Google Project Sunroof''']: (detailedDetailed estimates of rooftop solar potential based on sunlight and roof space) [TODO not sure if this belongs here].
== Selected problems ==
''Under construction''
== References ==
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