Weather forecasting

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This page is part of the Climate Change AI Wiki, which aims provide resources at the intersection of climate change and machine learning.

ML is a suitable tool for making short-term weather predictions[1] based on the observed initial conditions, and post-processing the output from weather models[2].

ML Application Areas

  • Storm tracking: While climate models can forecast long-term changes in the climate system, separate systems are required to detect specific extreme weather phenomena, like cyclones, atmospheric rivers, and tornadoes. Identifying extreme events in climate model outputs can inform scientific understanding of where and when these events may occur. ML can help classify, detect, and track climate-related extreme events such as hurricanes in climate model outputs.
  • Dust storm Prediction: Dust storms affect people, their properties, and their activities. For this reason, it is crucial to adopt automatic systems by using machine learning to predict or at least enable early detection of dust storms to reduce their deleterious impacts.
  • Postprocessing of the output of weather/climate models: The ML model gets climate/weather model as inputs and learn patterns to improve these predictions.
  • Forward prediction model: The ML model integrates initial conditions into the future. Iterate the ML prediction to predict further into the future.

Background Readings

Conferences, Journals, and Professional Organizations

  • Opportunities and challenges for machine learning in weather and climate modelling: hard, medium and soft AI[3]

Libraries and Tools


Future Directions

Relevant Groups and Organizations


  1. Düben, Peter; Modigliani, Umberto; Geer, Alan; Siemen, Stephan; Pappenberger, Florian; Bauer, Peter; Brown, Andy; Palkovic, Martin; Raoult, Baudouin (2021). "Machine learning at ECMWF: A roadmap for the next 10 years". Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  2. Rasp, Stephan; Lerch, Sebastian (2018-11-01). "Neural Networks for Postprocessing Ensemble Weather Forecasts". Monthly Weather Review. 146 (11): 3885–3900. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0187.1. ISSN 1520-0493.
  3. Chantry, Matthew; Christensen, Hannah; Dueben, Peter; Palmer, Tim (2021). "Opportunities and challenges for machine learning in weather and climate modelling: hard, medium and soft AI".