Electricity Systems: Difference between revisions

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''This page is about the intersection of electricity systems and machine learning in the context of climate change mitigation. For an overview of electricity systems as a whole, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_system Wikipedia page] on this topic.''[[File:ElectricitySystems.png|thumb|A schematic of selected opportunities to reduce greenhouse emissions from electricity systems using machine learning. From "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning."<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Rolnick|first=David|last2=Donti|first2=Priya L.|last3=Kaack|first3=Lynn H.|last4=Kochanski|first4=Kelly|last5=Lacoste|first5=Alexandre|last6=Sankaran|first6=Kris|last7=Ross|first7=Andrew Slavin|last8=Milojevic-Dupont|first8=Nikola|last9=Jaques|first9=Natasha|last10=Waldman-Brown|first10=Anna|last11=Luccioni|first11=Alexandra|date=2019-11-05|title=Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning|url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1906.05433|journal=arXiv:1906.05433 [cs, stat]}}</ref>]]As described in the paper "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning"<ref name=":0" />:<blockquote>AI has been called the new electricity, given its potential to transform entire industries.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Andrew Ng: Artificial Intelligence is the New Electricity - YouTube|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21EiKfQYZXc|website=www.youtube.com}}</ref> Interestingly, electricity itself is one of the industries that AI is poised to transform. Many electricity systems are awash in data, and the industry has begun to envision next-generation systems (smart grids) driven by AI and ML.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ramchurn|first=Sarvapali D.|last2=Vytelingum|first2=Perukrishnen|last3=Rogers|first3=Alex|last4=Jennings|first4=Nicholas R.|date=2012-04|title=Putting the 'smarts' into the smart grid|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133806.2133825|journal=Communications of the ACM|volume=55|issue=4|pages=86–97|doi=10.1145/2133806.2133825|issn=0001-0782}}</ref><ref>{{Citation|title=Machine Learning Techniques for Supporting Renewable Energy Generation and Integration: A Survey|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13290-7_7|publisher=Springer International Publishing}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|title=How artificial intelligence will affect the future of energy and climate|url=https://www.brookings.edu/research/how-artificial-intelligence-will-affect-the-future-of-energy-and-climate/|website=Brookings|date=2019-01-10|language=en-US}}</ref>
AI has been called the new electricity, given its potential to transform entire industries.<ref>{{Cite web|title=Andrew Ng: Artificial Intelligence is the New Electricity - YouTube|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21EiKfQYZXc|website=www.youtube.com}}</ref> Interestingly, electricity itself is one of the industries that AI is poised to transform. Many electricity systems are awash in data, and the industry has begun to envision next-generation systems (smart grids) driven by AI and ML.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ramchurn|first=Sarvapali D.|last2=Vytelingum|first2=Perukrishnen|last3=Rogers|first3=Alex|last4=Jennings|first4=Nicholas R.|date=2012-04|title=Putting the 'smarts' into the smart grid|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133806.2133825|journal=Communications of the ACM|volume=55|issue=4|pages=86–97|doi=10.1145/2133806.2133825|issn=0001-0782}}</ref><ref>{{Citation|title=Machine Learning Techniques for Supporting Renewable Energy Generation and Integration: A Survey|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13290-7_7|publisher=Springer International Publishing}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|title=How artificial intelligence will affect the future of energy and climate|url=https://www.brookings.edu/research/how-artificial-intelligence-will-affect-the-future-of-energy-and-climate/|website=Brookings|date=2019-01-10|language=en-US}}</ref>
 
Electricity systems are responsible for about a quarter of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions each year.<ref>IPCC. Climate Change 2014: ''Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change'' [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlomer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel, J.C. Minx, (eds.)]. 2014.</ref> Moreover, as buildings, transportation, and other sectors seek to replace GHG-emitting fuels, demand for low-carbon electricity will grow. To reduce emissions from electricity systems, society must
 
* Rapidly transition to low-carbon electricity sources (such as solar, wind, hydro, and nuclear) and phase out carbon-emitting sources (such as coal, natural gas, and other fossil fuels).
* Reduce emissions from existing CO<sub>2</sub>-emitting power plants, since the transition to low-carbon power will not happen overnight.
* Implement these changes across all countries and contexts, as electricity systems are everywhere.
 
ML can contribute on all fronts by informing the research, deployment, and operation of electricity system technologies. Such contributions include accelerating the development of clean energy technologies, improving forecasts of demand and clean energy, improving electricity system optimization and management, and enhancing system monitoring.<ref name=":0" /> These contributions require a variety of ML paradigms and techniques, as well as close collaborations with the electricity industry and other experts to integrate insights from operations research, electrical engineering, physics, chemistry, the social sciences, and other fields.</blockquote>
 
== Machine Learning Application Areas ==
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