Difference between revisions of "Solar Geoengineering"

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''This page is about the intersection of solar geoengineering and machine learning in the context of climate change adaptation. For an overview of solar geoengineering as a whole, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_radiation_management Wikipedia page] on this topic.''
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''This page is about the intersection of solar geoengineering and machine learning. For an overview of solar geoengineering as a whole, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_radiation_management Wikipedia page] on this topic.''
   
 
Solar geoengineering, much like the greenhouse gases causing climate change, shifts the balance between how much heat the Earth absorbs and how much it releases. The difference is that it is done deliberately, and in the opposite direction. The most common umbrella strategy is to make the Earth more reflective, keeping heat out, though there are also methods of helping heat escape (besides CO2 removal, which is discussed in [[Forestry and Other Land Use]]).
 
Solar geoengineering, much like the greenhouse gases causing climate change, shifts the balance between how much heat the Earth absorbs and how much it releases. The difference is that it is done deliberately, and in the opposite direction. The most common umbrella strategy is to make the Earth more reflective, keeping heat out, though there are also methods of helping heat escape (besides CO2 removal, which is discussed in [[Forestry and Other Land Use]]).
   
 
== Machine Learning Application Areas ==
 
== Machine Learning Application Areas ==
  +
There are a number of speculative applications of machine learning to solar geoengineering. (For more details on these problem areas, see the chapter on Solar Geoengineering in the paper "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning."<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Rolnick|first=David|last2=Donti|first2=Priya L.|last3=Kaack|first3=Lynn H.|last4=Kochanski|first4=Kelly|last5=Lacoste|first5=Alexandre|last6=Sankaran|first6=Kris|last7=Ross|first7=Andrew Slavin|last8=Milojevic-Dupont|first8=Nikola|last9=Jaques|first9=Natasha|last10=Waldman-Brown|first10=Anna|last11=Luccioni|first11=Alexandra|date=2019-11-05|title=Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning|url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1906.05433|journal=arXiv:1906.05433 [cs, stat]}}</ref>)
   
  +
* '''Designing aerosols''': Many solar geoengineering proposals rely on injecting aerosol particles into the atmosphere to partially reflect sunlight. ML can (speculatively) accelerate the search for new aerosols that are chemically nonreactive but still reflective, cheap, and easy to keep aloft. (See also the page on [[Accelerated Science|accelerated science]].)
== Background Readings ==
 
  +
* '''Modeling aerosols''': Many solar geoengineering proposals rely on injecting aerosol particles into the atmosphere to partially reflect sunlight, but their physics is not fully understood. ML can help speed up physical models and quantify the uncertainty of predictions. (See also the page on [[Climate Science|climate science]].)
  +
* '''Engineering a planetary control system''': Controlling a geoengineering system comes with a multitude of challenges and a host of possible side effects, many of which could be catastrophic. Speculatively, ML can help fine-tune geoengineering interventions by suggesting control actions and emulating the complex dynamical systems involved.
  +
* '''Modeling geoengineering impacts''': It remains unclear what consequences will result from geoengineering proposals such as injecting aerosols into the stratosphere. ML can help model the impact of aerosols on human health, the effect of diminished light on agriculture, and other potential consequences of solar geoengineering. (See also the discussion on integrated assessment models on the [[Public Policy and Decision Science|public policy and decision science]] page.)
   
 
== Background Readings ==
=== Articles and Reports ===
 
   
 
*'''Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering (2018)'''<ref>Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. “Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering.” Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Project on Climate Agreements, November 2018. Available at https://www.c2g2.net/wp-content/uploads/Harvard-Project-Solar-Geo-Governance-Briefs-181126.pdf</ref>: A comprehensive report is based on a workshop organized and hosted by the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. [https://www.c2g2.net/wp-content/uploads/Harvard-Project-Solar-Geo-Governance-Briefs-181126.pdf Available here].
 
*'''Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering (2018)'''<ref>Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. “Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering.” Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Project on Climate Agreements, November 2018. Available at https://www.c2g2.net/wp-content/uploads/Harvard-Project-Solar-Geo-Governance-Briefs-181126.pdf</ref>: A comprehensive report is based on a workshop organized and hosted by the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. [https://www.c2g2.net/wp-content/uploads/Harvard-Project-Solar-Geo-Governance-Briefs-181126.pdf Available here].
*'''An Overview of the Earth System Science of geoengineering (2016)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Irvine|first=Peter J.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|last3=Lawrence|first3=Mark G.|last4=Muri|first4=Helene|date=2016-11-01|title=An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering|url=http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/wcc.423|journal=Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change|language=en|volume=7|issue=6|pages=815–833|doi=10.1002/wcc.423|via=}}</ref>: An introductory article regarding approaches in geoengineering and the considerations to take into account. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/wcc.423 Available here.]
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*'''An Overview of the Earth System Science of Geoengineering (2016)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Irvine|first=Peter J.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|last3=Lawrence|first3=Mark G.|last4=Muri|first4=Helene|date=2016-11-01|title=An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering|url=http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/wcc.423|journal=Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change|language=en|volume=7|issue=6|pages=815–833|doi=10.1002/wcc.423|via=}}</ref>: An introductory article regarding approaches in geoengineering and the considerations to take into account. [https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/wcc.423 Available here.]
 
*'''Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering (2016)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Irvine|first=Peter J.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|last3=Lawrence|first3=Mark G.|last4=Gerten|first4=Dieter|last5=Caminade|first5=Cyril|last6=Gosling|first6=Simon N.|last7=Hendy|first7=Erica J.|last8=Kassie|first8=Belay T.|last9=Kissling|first9=W. Daniel|last10=Muri|first10=Helene|last11=Oschlies|first11=Andreas|date=2017-01-01|title=Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016ef000389|journal=Earth's Future|volume=5|issue=1|pages=93–106|doi=10.1002/2016ef000389|issn=2328-4277|via=}}</ref>: A paper exploring the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystem [https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2016EF000389 Available here.]
 
*'''Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering (2016)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Irvine|first=Peter J.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|last3=Lawrence|first3=Mark G.|last4=Gerten|first4=Dieter|last5=Caminade|first5=Cyril|last6=Gosling|first6=Simon N.|last7=Hendy|first7=Erica J.|last8=Kassie|first8=Belay T.|last9=Kissling|first9=W. Daniel|last10=Muri|first10=Helene|last11=Oschlies|first11=Andreas|date=2017-01-01|title=Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016ef000389|journal=Earth's Future|volume=5|issue=1|pages=93–106|doi=10.1002/2016ef000389|issn=2328-4277|via=}}</ref>: A paper exploring the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystem [https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2016EF000389 Available here.]
 
*'''The engineering of climate engineering (2019)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=MacMartin|first=Douglas G.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|date=2019-05-03|title=The Engineering of Climate Engineering|url=https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725|journal=Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems|volume=2|issue=1|pages=445–467|doi=10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725|issn=2573-5144}}</ref>: A review of the engineering design aspects of climate engineering, discussing both progress to date and remaining challenges that will need to be addressed. [https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725 Available here.]
 
*'''The engineering of climate engineering (2019)'''<ref>{{Cite journal|last=MacMartin|first=Douglas G.|last2=Kravitz|first2=Ben|date=2019-05-03|title=The Engineering of Climate Engineering|url=https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725|journal=Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems|volume=2|issue=1|pages=445–467|doi=10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725|issn=2573-5144}}</ref>: A review of the engineering design aspects of climate engineering, discussing both progress to date and remaining challenges that will need to be addressed. [https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725 Available here.]
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=== Major conferences ===
 
=== Major conferences ===
   
*[https://www.ce-conference.org/ '''Climate Engineering Conference''']: an annual conference bringing together the research, policy, and civic communities to discuss the highly complex and interlinked ethical, social and technical issues related to climate engineering.  
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*'''Climate Engineering Conference''': An annual conference bringing together the research, policy, and civic communities to discuss the highly complex and interlinked ethical, social and technical issues related to climate engineering. Website [https://www.ce-conference.org/ here].
*[https://www.agu.org/fall-meeting '''American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting''']: the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, presenting thematic research on the latest topics in geophysical sciences.
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*'''American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting''': The annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, presenting thematic research on the latest topics in geophysical sciences. Website [https://www.agu.org/fall-meeting here].
   
 
=== Major journals ===
 
=== Major journals ===
   
*[https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/21698996 '''Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres''']: a journal publishing original research articles that advance and improve the understanding of atmospheric properties and processes, including the interaction of the atmosphere with other components of the Earth system, as well as their roles in climate variability and change.
+
*'''Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres''': A journal publishing original research articles that advance and improve the understanding of atmospheric properties and processes, including the interaction of the atmosphere with other components of the Earth system, as well as their roles in climate variability and change. Website [https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/21698996 here].
*[https://www.atmospheric-chemistry-and-physics.net/ '''Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics''']: an international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and public discussion of high-quality studies investigating the Earth's atmosphere and the underlying chemical and physical processes
+
*'''Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics''': An international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and public discussion of high-quality studies investigating the Earth's atmosphere and the underlying chemical and physical processes. Website [https://www.atmospheric-chemistry-and-physics.net/ here].
*[https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/23284277 '''Earth's Future''']: a transdisciplinary journal examining the state of the planet and its inhabitants, sustainable and resilient societies and the science of the Anthropocene.
+
*'''Earth's Future''': A transdisciplinary journal examining the state of the planet and its inhabitants, sustainable and resilient societies and the science of the Anthropocene. Website [https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/23284277 here].
   
 
== Libraries and Tools ==
 
== Libraries and Tools ==
 
== Data ==
 
== Data ==
   
* [http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/GeoMIP/ The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project]: A resource describing solar geoengineering simulation data.
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*'''The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project''': A resource describing solar geoengineering simulation data. Website [http://climate.envsci.rutgers.edu/GeoMIP/ here].
   
 
== References ==
 
== References ==

Revision as of 16:08, 5 November 2020

This page is about the intersection of solar geoengineering and machine learning. For an overview of solar geoengineering as a whole, please see the Wikipedia page on this topic.

Solar geoengineering, much like the greenhouse gases causing climate change, shifts the balance between how much heat the Earth absorbs and how much it releases. The difference is that it is done deliberately, and in the opposite direction. The most common umbrella strategy is to make the Earth more reflective, keeping heat out, though there are also methods of helping heat escape (besides CO2 removal, which is discussed in Forestry and Other Land Use).

Machine Learning Application Areas

There are a number of speculative applications of machine learning to solar geoengineering. (For more details on these problem areas, see the chapter on Solar Geoengineering in the paper "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning."[1])

  • Designing aerosols: Many solar geoengineering proposals rely on injecting aerosol particles into the atmosphere to partially reflect sunlight. ML can (speculatively) accelerate the search for new aerosols that are chemically nonreactive but still reflective, cheap, and easy to keep aloft. (See also the page on accelerated science.)
  • Modeling aerosols: Many solar geoengineering proposals rely on injecting aerosol particles into the atmosphere to partially reflect sunlight, but their physics is not fully understood. ML can help speed up physical models and quantify the uncertainty of predictions. (See also the page on climate science.)
  • Engineering a planetary control system: Controlling a geoengineering system comes with a multitude of challenges and a host of possible side effects, many of which could be catastrophic. Speculatively, ML can help fine-tune geoengineering interventions by suggesting control actions and emulating the complex dynamical systems involved.
  • Modeling geoengineering impacts: It remains unclear what consequences will result from geoengineering proposals such as injecting aerosols into the stratosphere. ML can help model the impact of aerosols on human health, the effect of diminished light on agriculture, and other potential consequences of solar geoengineering. (See also the discussion on integrated assessment models on the public policy and decision science page.)

Background Readings

  • Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering (2018)[2]: A comprehensive report is based on a workshop organized and hosted by the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. Available here.
  • An Overview of the Earth System Science of Geoengineering (2016)[3]: An introductory article regarding approaches in geoengineering and the considerations to take into account. Available here.
  • Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering (2016)[4]: A paper exploring the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystem Available here.
  • The engineering of climate engineering (2019)[5]: A review of the engineering design aspects of climate engineering, discussing both progress to date and remaining challenges that will need to be addressed. Available here.

Online Courses and Course Materials

Community

Major conferences

  • Climate Engineering Conference: An annual conference bringing together the research, policy, and civic communities to discuss the highly complex and interlinked ethical, social and technical issues related to climate engineering. Website here.
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting: The annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, presenting thematic research on the latest topics in geophysical sciences. Website here.

Major journals

  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres: A journal publishing original research articles that advance and improve the understanding of atmospheric properties and processes, including the interaction of the atmosphere with other components of the Earth system, as well as their roles in climate variability and change. Website here.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: An international scientific journal dedicated to the publication and public discussion of high-quality studies investigating the Earth's atmosphere and the underlying chemical and physical processes. Website here.
  • Earth's Future: A transdisciplinary journal examining the state of the planet and its inhabitants, sustainable and resilient societies and the science of the Anthropocene. Website here.

Libraries and Tools

Data

  • The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project: A resource describing solar geoengineering simulation data. Website here.

References

  1. Rolnick, David; Donti, Priya L.; Kaack, Lynn H.; Kochanski, Kelly; Lacoste, Alexandre; Sankaran, Kris; Ross, Andrew Slavin; Milojevic-Dupont, Nikola; Jaques, Natasha; Waldman-Brown, Anna; Luccioni, Alexandra (2019-11-05). "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning". arXiv:1906.05433 [cs, stat].
  2. Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. “Governance of the Deployment of Solar Geoengineering.” Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Project on Climate Agreements, November 2018. Available at https://www.c2g2.net/wp-content/uploads/Harvard-Project-Solar-Geo-Governance-Briefs-181126.pdf
  3. Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Muri, Helene (2016-11-01). "An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering: Overview of the earth system science of solar geoengineering". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 7 (6): 815–833. doi:10.1002/wcc.423.
  4. Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas (2017-01-01). "Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering". Earth's Future. 5 (1): 93–106. doi:10.1002/2016ef000389. ISSN 2328-4277.
  5. MacMartin, Douglas G.; Kravitz, Ben (2019-05-03). "The Engineering of Climate Engineering". Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems. 2 (1): 445–467. doi:10.1146/annurev-control-053018-023725. ISSN 2573-5144.