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''This page is about the intersection of climate science and machine learning. For an overview of climate science as a whole, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climatology Wikipedia page] on this topic. For an overview of physics-driven climate models, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_model Wikipedia page] or this [https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-how-do-climate-models-work Carbon Brief Q&A].''[[File:Clim prediction.png|thumb|Avenues through which machine learning can support climate science, as described in "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning." <ref name=s":0">{{Cite journal|last=Rolnick|first=David|last2=Donti|first2=Priya L.|last3=Kaack|first3=Lynn H.|last4=Kochanski|first4=Kelly|last5=Lacoste|first5=Alexandre|last6=Sankaran|first6=Kris|last7=Ross|first7=Andrew Slavin|last8=Milojevic-Dupont|first8=Nikola|last9=Jaques|first9=Natasha|last10=Waldman-Brown|first10=Anna|last11=Luccioni|first11=Alexandra|date=2019-11-05|title=Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning|url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1906.05433|journal=arXiv:1906.05433 [cs, stat]}}</ref>|alt=]]
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''This page is about the intersection of climate science and machine learning. For an overview of climate science as a whole, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climatology Wikipedia page] on this topic. For an overview of physics-driven climate models, please see the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_model Wikipedia page] or this [https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-how-do-climate-models-work Carbon Brief Q&A].''[[File:Clim prediction.png|thumb|Avenues through which machine learning can support climate science, as described in "Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning." <ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Rolnick|first=David|last2=Donti|first2=Priya L.|last3=Kaack|first3=Lynn H.|last4=Kochanski|first4=Kelly|last5=Lacoste|first5=Alexandre|last6=Sankaran|first6=Kris|last7=Ross|first7=Andrew Slavin|last8=Milojevic-Dupont|first8=Nikola|last9=Jaques|first9=Natasha|last10=Waldman-Brown|first10=Anna|last11=Luccioni|first11=Alexandra|date=2019-11-05|title=Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning|url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1906.05433|journal=arXiv:1906.05433 [cs, stat]}}</ref>|alt=]]
 
Climate models are physics-driven numerical models that consist of different components of the climate system (e.g., atmosphere, land, ocean, sea-ice, etc.) that are connected by different feedbacks and exchange of carbon, water and energy. Climate models can be of different complexity, ranging from simple zero or one-dimensional energy balance models to fully coupled comprehensive Earth system models or General Circulation Models<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.ipcc-data.org/guidelines/pages/gcm_guide.html|title=What is a GCM?|website=www.ipcc-data.org|access-date=2021-03-16}}</ref> (ESMs or GCMs, respectively). These models are able to simulate historical climate changes<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.carbonbrief.org/analysis-how-well-have-climate-models-projected-global-warming|title=Analysis: How well have climate models projected global warming?|date=2017-10-05|website=Carbon Brief|language=en|access-date=2021-01-25}}</ref> and are used in assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)<ref name=":1">{{Cite book|url=https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/|title=Global warming of 1.5C. An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty|author=IPCC|coauthors=|date=|first=|publisher=|year=2018|isbn=|location=|pages=}}</ref><ref name=":2">{{Cite book|url=https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/|author=IPCC|title=IPCC. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|date=2014|first=|publisher=|year=|isbn=|location=|pages=}}</ref><ref name=":4">{{Cite book|url=https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/|title=Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|author=IPCC|date=2014|first=|publisher=|year=|isbn=|location=|pages=}}</ref> that provide policy-relevant information regarding the current state of the climate system and [[future climate projections]] under different [[emission scenarios]]. Climate models also help with asessing climate risks (see [[Policy, Markets, and Decision Science]] and [[Climate Change Adaptation]]).
 
Climate models are physics-driven numerical models that consist of different components of the climate system (e.g., atmosphere, land, ocean, sea-ice, etc.) that are connected by different feedbacks and exchange of carbon, water and energy. Climate models can be of different complexity, ranging from simple zero or one-dimensional energy balance models to fully coupled comprehensive Earth system models or General Circulation Models<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.ipcc-data.org/guidelines/pages/gcm_guide.html|title=What is a GCM?|website=www.ipcc-data.org|access-date=2021-03-16}}</ref> (ESMs or GCMs, respectively). These models are able to simulate historical climate changes<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.carbonbrief.org/analysis-how-well-have-climate-models-projected-global-warming|title=Analysis: How well have climate models projected global warming?|date=2017-10-05|website=Carbon Brief|language=en|access-date=2021-01-25}}</ref> and are used in assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)<ref name=":1">{{Cite book|url=https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/|title=Global warming of 1.5C. An IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty|author=IPCC|coauthors=|date=|first=|publisher=|year=2018|isbn=|location=|pages=}}</ref><ref name=":2">{{Cite book|url=https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/|author=IPCC|title=IPCC. Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|date=2014|first=|publisher=|year=|isbn=|location=|pages=}}</ref><ref name=":4">{{Cite book|url=https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/|title=Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change|author=IPCC|date=2014|first=|publisher=|year=|isbn=|location=|pages=}}</ref> that provide policy-relevant information regarding the current state of the climate system and [[future climate projections]] under different [[emission scenarios]]. Climate models also help with asessing climate risks (see [[Policy, Markets, and Decision Science]] and [[Climate Change Adaptation]]).
   
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Applications of Machine Learning in different domains of climate science appear in various climate-related journals, such as:
 
Applications of Machine Learning in different domains of climate science appear in various climate-related journals, such as:
   
*'''[https://journals.ametsoc.org/bams Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society] (BAMS)''': A journal published by the American Meteorological Society (AMS).
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*'''[https://journals.ametsoc.org/bams Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society] (BAMS)''': A journal published by the Americal Meteorological Society (AMS).
 
*'''[https://www.earth-system-dynamics.net/ Earth System Dynamics] (ESD)''': An open-access journal of the European Geophysical Union.
 
*'''[https://www.earth-system-dynamics.net/ Earth System Dynamics] (ESD)''': An open-access journal of the European Geophysical Union.
 
*'''[https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/1748-9326 Environmental Research Letters] (ERL):''' An open-access journal from IOPscience publishing group.
 
*'''[https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/1748-9326 Environmental Research Letters] (ERL):''' An open-access journal from IOPscience publishing group.
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*'''[https://www.pnas.org/ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences] (PNAS):''' A wide-reaching journal often featuring climate science.
 
*'''[https://www.pnas.org/ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences] (PNAS):''' A wide-reaching journal often featuring climate science.
 
*'''[https://www.nature.com/ Springer Nature]''' '''journals:''' Often feature climate science topics, recently also with applications of machine learning -e.g., '''[https://www.nature.com/nclimate/ Nature Climate Change], [https://www.nature.com/ngeo/ Nature Geoscience]''', '''[https://www.nature.com/ncomms/ Nature Communications]''' (open access), '''[https://www.nature.com/commsenv/ Communications Earth and Environment]''' (open access), '''[https://www.nature.com/npjclimatsci/ npj Climate and Atmospheric Science]''' (open access).
 
*'''[https://www.nature.com/ Springer Nature]''' '''journals:''' Often feature climate science topics, recently also with applications of machine learning -e.g., '''[https://www.nature.com/nclimate/ Nature Climate Change], [https://www.nature.com/ngeo/ Nature Geoscience]''', '''[https://www.nature.com/ncomms/ Nature Communications]''' (open access), '''[https://www.nature.com/commsenv/ Communications Earth and Environment]''' (open access), '''[https://www.nature.com/npjclimatsci/ npj Climate and Atmospheric Science]''' (open access).
*'''[https://www.ametsoc.org/index.cfm/ams/publications/journals/artificial-intelligence-for-the-earth-systems/ Artificial Intelligence for the Earth Systems] (AIES)''': A new journal focusing on AI published by the American Meteorological Society (AMS).
 
   
 
=== Major societies and organizations ===
 
=== Major societies and organizations ===
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